- Support of simultaneous access from a UE to both the operator’s core network and Local IP Access to the home based network/Internet
- Support of Local IP Access to the home based network/Internet without traversing the operator’s network except H(e)NB
- The operator or the H(e)NB Owner, within the limits set by the operator would be able to enable/disable Local IP Access to the home based network/Internet per H(e)NB.
- It would be possible to collect and make available to the operator statistics information (e.g. regular reporting of Local IP traffic volume) for each user on the use of the Local IP Access to the home based network/ Internet.
- Local IP access to home based network/ Internet would not compromise the security of the operator’s network.
Friday, November 13, 2009
Sunday, November 1, 2009
Saturday, October 24, 2009
Sunday, October 11, 2009
- Detection of unintended holes in the coverage (planned by the operator)
- Perform coverage optimization, including DL/UL channel coverage a
- Ability to balance the trade-off between coverage and capacity
- Continuous, optimized and matched UL and DL coverage
- Optimized DL and UL capacity of the system
- Balanced tradeoff between coverage and capacity
- Interference reduction
- Controlled cell edge performance
- Minimized human intervention in network management and optimization tasks
- Energy savings
Sunday, September 27, 2009
- supports access to E-UTRAN/EPC as well as access to the CS domain over GERAN and/or UTRAN.
- Combined procedures for EPS/IMSI attach, update and detach.
- CS fallback and SMS procedures for using CS domain services.
- Deriving a VLR number and LAI from the GUTI received from the UE or from a default LAI.
- Maintaining of SGs association towards MSC/VLR for EPS/IMSI attached UE.
- Initiating IMSI detach at EPS detach.
- Initiating paging procedure towards eNodeB when MSC pages the UE for CS services.
- Support of SMS procedures
- Rejecting CS Fallback call request (e.g. due to O&M reasons)
- Use of the LAI and a hash value from the IMSI to determine the VLR number when multiple MSC/VLRs serve the same LAI.
- Maintaining SGs association towards MME for EPS/IMSI attached UE.
- Support of SMS procedures as provided in 3GPP specification
- Forwarding paging request and SMS to the UE.
- Directing the UE to the target CS capable cell.
Saturday, September 19, 2009
Sunday, August 30, 2009
- FDD Uplink: 832 – 862 MHz
- FDD Downlink: 791 – 821 MHz
Saturday, August 22, 2009
With wireless subscription having reached to 441.66 Million, India has yet to catchup with other countries in 3G and LTE (Long Term Evolution) deployments. India's state-run mobile operators BSNL and MTNL have already launched commercial 3G services after getting access to spectrum last year. BSNL and MTNL have set sights on adding between 200,000 and 300,000 subscribers during the first year of operations.
DoT and finance ministry recently indicated to limit the number of slots to just four blocks of 5 MHz each in the 2.1 GHz band for 3G auctions with a view to maximizing revenue per block of spectrum. These four new entrants will be in addition to BSNL/MTNL, taking the total 3G operators per circle to five.
Even as the policy for auctioning spectrum for 3G mobile services is yet to be finalized, the Department of Telecom is already thinking about the introduction of 4G technologies such as LTE. It says some spectrum must be retained to accommodate the future needs of these operators as well as to provide for 4G technology (LTE) which will require a minimum channel of 10 MHz for the launch of service.
However telecom operators RCOM, Tata, Systema and equipment vendor Qualcomm strongly are opposing the government’s move to restrict 3G spectrum auctions to four blocks per circle. These companies want all spectrum to be put on the block so that the demand-supply equation pushes down its price.
The final decisions will be made by Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) in the next few weeks, based on which 3G auctions are expected either by early December or after January 2010.
It is still not clear how many operators could get 3G & LTE spectrum. Similar to 3G, LTE may come in India in 2.1 Ghz band, as 2.5 Ghz (EU LTE spectrum) is mostly used for satellite-based networks. In India most operators are looking to move to this technology by 2011, once they start making money on 3G services. MTNL & BSNL may again lead LTE deployments.
Friday, August 14, 2009
LTE standards are in matured state now with release 8 frozen. While LTE Advanced is still under works. Often the LTE standard is seen as 4G standard which is not true. 3.9G is more acceptable for LTE. So why it is not 4G? Answer is quite simple - LTE does not fulfill all requirements of ITU 4G definition.
Brief History of LTE Advanced: The ITU has introduced the term IMT Advanced to identify mobile systems whose capabilities go beyond those of IMT 2000. The IMT Advanced systems shall provide best-in-class performance attributes such as peak and sustained data rates and corresponding spectral efficiencies, capacity, latency, overall network complexity and quality-of-service management. The new capabilities of these IMT-Advanced systems are envisaged to handle a wide range of supported data rates with target peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility.
In order to meet this new challenge, 3GPP widened its scope to include systems beyond 3G. LTE Advanced would fulfil the 4G requirements as set by ITU. In 2008 3GPP held workshops on IMT Advanced, where the “Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA” were gathered. The resulting Technical Report 36.913 has been now published.
- LTE - DL: 100 Mbps, UL: 50 Mbps
- LTE Advanced - DL: 1 Gbps, UL: 500 Mbps
- In comparison to LTE, LTE Advanced is wider than approximately 70 MHz in DL and 40 MHz in UL.
- LTE - C-plane from Idle (with IP address allocated) to Connected in <100>
- LTE Advanced - C-plane from Idle (with IP address allocated) to Connected in <50>
Peak spectrum efficiency:
- LTE - DL 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA , UL - 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
- LTE Advanced - DL 30 bps/Hz and UL 15 bps/Hz.
- LTE - At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz.
- LTE Advanced - At least 300 active users without DRX in a 5 MHz bandwidth.
- LTE - Support mobility across the cellular network for various mobile speeds up to 350km/h (or perhaps even up to 500km/h depending on the frequency band).
- LTE Advanced - Same as that in LTE, System performance shall be enhanced for 0 to 10km/h
LTE Advanced would operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes including wider spectrum allocations than those of Release 8 to achieve higher performance and the target peak data rate, e.g. up to 100 MHz.
Friday, August 7, 2009
- 815 - 830 MHz: UL
- 860 - 875 MHz: DL
- 830 - 845 MHz: UL
- 875 - 890 MHz: DL
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Whitepaper provides a overview of global spectrum allocations for 3GPP based technologies and illustrates some of the key challenges for optimal spectrum utilization when allocations differ either on a country- or region-specific basis.
While covering widely held tenets considered fundamental for sound spectrum policy it discusses current approaches to addressing fragmented spectrum challenges.
In concluding remarks 3G Americas states that that there is a significant impact of fragmented spectrum allocations on the cost and performance of mobile devices. These impacts hold true in virtually every corner of the globe.
Regulators have an important and challenging role in obtaining addition spectrum and bringing it to market to meet the demands of consumers.
3G Americas offered regulators to consider following while working on obtaining addition spectrum:
1. Spectrum should be harmonized and coordinated to the maximum extent feasible;
2. New spectrum should facilitate access by new technologies of all stripes;
3. At the same time, appropriate protections should be established for incumbent and/or adjacent service providers to protect against interference;
4. Spectrum policy should foster as far as possible the efficient use of spectrum; and
5. The rules covering the allocation, auction and deployment of spectrum should be predictable and transparent, prior to auctions.
For further reading download whitepaper.
Thursday, July 23, 2009
Saturday, July 18, 2009
The following are some of the principles of 3GPP E-UTRAN security based on 3GPP Release 8 specifications:
- The keys used for NAS and AS protection shall be dependent on the algorithm with which they are used.
- The eNB keys are cryptographically separated from the
EPCkeys used for NAS protection (making it impossible to use the eNB key to figure out an EPCkey).
- The AS (
RRCand UP) and NAS keys are derived in the EPC/UE from key material that was generated by a NAS ( EPC/UE) level AKA procedure (KASME) and identified with a key identifier (KSIASME).
- The eNB key (KeNB) is sent from the
EPCto the eNB when the UE is entering ECM-CONNECTED state (i.e. during RRCconnection or S1 context setup).
- Separate AS and NAS level security mode command procedures are used.
- Keys stored inside eNBs shall never leave a secure environment within the eNB (except when done in accordance with this or other 3GPP specifications), and user plane data ciphering/deciphering shall take place inside the secure environment where the related keys are stored.
- Key material for the eNB keys is sent between the eNBs during ECM-CONNECTED intra-E-UTRAN mobility.
The HE sends an authentication response back to the
From KASME, the NAS keys, (and indirectly) KeNB keys and NH are derived. The KASME is never transported to an entity outside of the
From the KeNB, the eNB and UE can derive the UP and
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
- Network Selection for non-3GPP Access
- Registration in Densely-populated area
- Enhanced Home NodeB / eNodeB continuation of Rel-9
- IMS aspects of Architecture for Home NodeB - moved from Rel-9
- IMS Service Continuity – Inter Device Transfer enhancements (EHNB)
- GTP-based S8 chaining - moved from Rel-9
- Multi Access PDN Connectivity - moved from Rel-9
- EEA3 and EIA3 (new Encryption & Integrity EPS security algorithms)
- Study on Mobile Haptic Services
- Study on advanced requirements for IP interconnect - moved from Rel-9
- Study on Unauthenticated PS Emergency Calls - moved from Rel-9
- Study on Study on Personal Broadcast Service - moved from Rel-9
- Study on LCS support in SAE for non-3GPP accesses - moved from Rel-9
- Study on System enhancements for the use of IMS services in local breakout and optimal routing of media - moved from Rel-9
- Study on Intra Domain Connection of RAN Nodes to Multiple CN Nodes - moved from Rel-9
- Study on IMS Evolution - moved from Rel-9
- Study on enhancements to IMS border functions for IMS Interconnection of services - moved from Rel-9
- Study on Policy solutions and enhancements
- Study on IPv6 Migration
- Study on SR-VCC Enhancements
Tuesday, July 7, 2009
Once operator start migrating towards LTE then what will be the shape of VAS? It would be interesting to see how current VAS infrastructure will be reused. VoLGA seems to be a bridging the gap during migration but what would be final implementation?
read more at LteWorld
According VoLGA stage 1 specification, The aim of VoLGA is to make traditional GSM/UMTS circuit switched (CS) services available to UEs accessing the EPS network via E-UTRAN.
The lack of native SMS over LTE support is a show-stopper for LTE dongle service. Mobile operators rely on SMS for back office customer care, provisioning and management of HSPA-dongle services. Clearly those systems need to be available to an LTE-based terminal service at launch.
read more at LteWorld
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